Artificial Intelligence Models in the Diagnosis of Adult-Onset Dementia Disorders: A Review

Gopi Battineni, Nalini Chintalapudi, Mohammad Amran Hossain, Giuseppe Losco, Ciro Ruocco, Getu Gamo Sagaro, Enea Traini, Giulio Nittari, Francesco Amenta

Academic Editors: Pedro Miguel Rodrigues, João Alexandre Lobo Marques and João Paulo do Vale Madeiro

Bioengineering 20229(8), 370;


Background: The progressive aging of populations, primarily in the industrialized western world, is accompanied by the increased incidence of several non-transmittable diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and adult-onset dementia disorders. To stimulate adequate interventions, including treatment and preventive measures, an early, accurate diagnosis is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a technique quite common for the diagnosis of neurological disorders. Increasing evidence indicates that the association of artificial intelligence (AI) approaches with MRI is particularly useful for improving the diagnostic accuracy of different dementia types. Objectives: In this work, we have systematically reviewed the characteristics of AI algorithms in the early detection of adult-onset dementia disorders, and also discussed its performance metrics. Methods: A document search was conducted with three databases, namely PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, and Scopus. The search was limited to the articles published after 2006 and in English only. The screening of the articles was performed using quality criteria based on the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) rating. Only papers with an NOS score ≥ 7 were considered for further review. Results: The document search produced a count of 1876 articles and, because of duplication, 1195 papers were not considered. Multiple screenings were performed to assess quality criteria, which yielded 29 studies. All the selected articles were further grouped based on different attributes, including study type, type of AI model used in the identification of dementia, performance metrics, and data type. Conclusions: The most common adult-onset dementia disorders occurring were Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. AI techniques associated with MRI resulted in increased diagnostic accuracy ranging from 73.3% to 99%. These findings suggest that AI should be associated with conventional MRI techniques to obtain a precise and early diagnosis of dementia disorders occurring in old age.

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